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Author Topic: History Guide: United States 1935-1955  (Read 1782 times)

* Anneka Ivanova

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USA: A Timeline of Events

1935

President: Franklin Roosevelt (Democrat)
Vice President: John Garner


January: Amelia Earhart becomes the first person to fly solo from Hawaii to California
April: FDR signs legislation creating the Works Progress Administration
April: The first round-the-world telephone conversation
June: National Youth Administration is set up
June: Babe Ruth retires from professional baseball
August: The Social Security Act of 1935 is signed into law by FDR
August: FDR asks Mussolini to preserve peace in East Africa
November: US Postal Service beings transpacific air mail service
December: Congress passes United States Neutrality Act

1936

President: Franklin Roosevelt (Democrat)
Vice President: John Garner


January: Baseball Hall of Fame is established
February: Winter Olympics are held in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany
March: Hoover Dam is completed
August: Summer Olympics are held in Berlin
November: FDR is elected to his second term as president
December: United Auto Workers begin sit-down strike in Flint, Michigan

1937

President: Franklin Roosevelt (Democrat)
Vice President: John Garner


January: The Great Flood of 1937
March: Slow economic recovery faces a set back as unemployment rises - called the start of the "Roosevelt recession"
May: Dust Storm strikes the West and Midwest
May: Golden Gate Bridge opens in San Francisco
May: Ten people are killed and a dozen more are wounded in the "Memorial Day Massacre" at Republic Steel's South Chicago plant
July: Amelia Earhart vanishes
July: Congress passes the Fair Labor Standards Act
October: New York Yankees win World Series

1938

President: Franklin Roosevelt (Democrat)
Vice President: John Garner

May: House Committee on Un-American Activities established
September: Major Hurricane devastates New England
October: The 'War of the Worlds' broadcast causes panic
October: New York Yankees win the World Series

1939

President: Franklin Roosevelt (Democrat)
Vice President: John Garner


March: Roosevelt administration calls the German takeover of Czechoslovakia a threat to world peace
April: New York World's Fair begins and includes the first exhibition of television
June: The first regular transatlantic passenger air service begins
September: FDR discusses the German invasion of Poland during a fireside chat
October: Nylon stockings are first sold in the US
October: New York Yankees win the World Series
November: Congress passes the Neutrality Act of 1939
December: NFL championship is won by the Green Bay Packers

1940

President: Franklin Roosevelt (Democrat)
Vice President: John Garner


March: Air Defense Command is established
May: FDR asks Congress for supplemental funds for military and naval development
June: US begins to supply Great Britain with surplus war material
July: More Americans are in favor of joining the war on the side of the Allies
September: First peacetime draft is enacted
November: FDR is elected to an unprecedented third term as president
November: F. Scott Fitzgerald dies of heart attack
December: Civil Air Patrol is established
December: FDR gives his famous "Arsenal of Democracy" fireside chat


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« Last Edit: 28/04/2017 at 12:29 by Anneka Ivanova »
and if I'm flying solo, at least I'm flying free
to those who ground me, take a message back from me
tell them how I am defying gravity

* Anneka Ivanova

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1941

President: Franklin Roosevelt (Democrat)
Vice President: Henry Wallace


February: United Service Organization (USO) is chartered to provide recreation for on-leave members of the armed forces and their families
March: The Lend-Lease Act is approved
June: Fair Employment Practice Committee is created
July: USA occupies Iceland to thwart a potential Nazi invasion
August: Atlantic Charter is issued by FDR and Winston Churchill
October: Mount Rushmore is "completed" due to a lack of funds
October: New York Yankees win World Series
December: Japanese fighter planes attack Pearl Harbor
December: USA declares war against Japan and officially enters WWII
December: USA declares war against Germany and Italy

1942

President: Franklin Roosevelt (Democrat)
Vice President: Henry Wallace


January: FDR creates the National War Labor Board
February: FDR signs an executive order forcing thousands of Japanese Americans into relocation camps
February: Auto factories switch from commercial to war production
March: General Douglas MacArthur becomes supreme commander of Allied forces in the southwest Pacific
March: FDR orders men between 45 and 64 to register for non military duty
June: Battle of Midway is fought
June: Agreement for the development of the first atomic bomb is signed by FDR and Winston Churchill
August: US Marines land on Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands
October: St. Louis Cardinals win World Series
November: North Africa is invaded by the US and Great Britain
December: The first nuclear chain reaction is produced at the University of Chicago in the Manhattan Project


1943

President: Franklin Roosevelt (Democrat)
Vice President: Henry Wallace


January: George Washington Carver dies at 81
January: A wartime ban on the sale of pre-sliced bread goes into effect
February: General Eisenhower selected to command the Allied armies in Europe
February: US encounters its first major defeat at the Battle for Kasserine Pass in Tunisia
April: The Jefferson memorial in Washington DC is dedicated by FDR on the 200th anniversary of Thomas Jefferson's birth
June: Race riots in Detroit and Harlem cause 40 deaths and 700 injuries
July:  United States Army's 45th Infantry Division lands on the island of Sicily
October: New York Yankees win World Series
November: Tehran Conference is held between FDR, Winston Churchill, and Josef Stalin
December: Thomas "Fats" Waller dies

1944

President: Franklin Roosevelt (Democrat)
Vice President: Henry Wallace

February: Batman & Robin comic strip premieres in newspapers
May: Wartime rationing of most grades of meats ends
May: US Communist Party dissolved
June: The Normandy Invasion (D-Day) occurs when Allied forces land in France
June: G.I. Bill of Rights is signed into law
July: Two ships loading ammunition at Port Chicago Naval Weapons Station in California explode killing 320
October: St. Louis Cardinals win World Series
November: FDR is elected to a fourth term as president
December: Supreme Court rules the wartime internment of Japanese Americans on the West Coast was valid during a time of war

1945

President: Franklin Roosevelt (Democrat); Harry Truman
Vice President: Harry Truman; none


February: FDR, Winston Churchill, and Josef Stalin hold the Yalta Conference
February: 30,000 Marines land on Iwo Jima
February: A midnight curfew on nightclubs, bars and other places of entertainment is set to go into effect across the country
April: FDR dies suddenly; Harry Truman becomes president
April: Delegates from some 50 countries meet in San Francisco to organize the United Nations
May: General  Eisenhower accepts the unconditional surrender of Germany which ends WWII in Europe
May: Officials announce the midnight entertainment curfew is being lifted
July: The first atomic bomb, the Trinity Test, is exploded at Alamogordo, New Mexico
July: US Communist Party formed
August: Truman gives the go-ahead to use the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
August: Japan surrenders which ends WWII in the Pacific
August: Gasoline and fuel rationing ends
October: Detroit Tigers win World Series
October: The first ball-point pen was sold by Gimbell's department store in New York for a price of $12
October: Shoe rationing ends
November: Rationing of most foods, including meat and butter, ends
December: Microwave oven is patented



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and if I'm flying solo, at least I'm flying free
to those who ground me, take a message back from me
tell them how I am defying gravity

* Anneka Ivanova

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1946

President: Harry Truman (Democrat)
Vice President: none


January: The US attends the first meeting of the United Nations general assembly in London
January: The first man-made contact with the moon was made as the US Army bounced radar signals off the lunar surface from Belmar, NJ
February: A press conference for what is considered one of the first computers, the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator (ENIAC), is held at the University of Pennsylvania
February: The 1st commercially designed helicopter is tested at Bridgeport, CT
March: First US built rocket to leave the earth’s atmosphere reached a 50-mile height
April: Weight Watchers was formed
April: Four hundred thousand mine workers begin to strike, with other industries following their lead
April: The League of Nations is dissolved
April: 1st baseball game telecast is in Chicago with the Cardinals vs. Cubs
May: Prisoners revolt at California’s Alcatraz prison
June: The Basketball Association of America is founded
July: The island nation of the Philippines is given their independence by the United States
September: The Cleveland Indians play their final game in League Park, ending a 55-year stay
October: The 1st manufactured electric blanket sells for $39.50
December: Tide laundry detergent is introduced

1947

President: Harry Truman (Democrat)
Vice President: none


February: A chemical mixing error causes an explosion that destroyed 42 blocks in Los Angeles
March: Congress proposes the limitation of the presidency to two terms
April: The first Tony awards are presented at a dinner in the Grand Ballroom of the Waldorf-Astoria on Easter Sunday
April: The United Nations Security Council unanimously approves the trusteeship of Pacific Islands formerly controlled by Japan to the United States
April: Jackie Robinson breaks Major League Baseball's barrier against colored players when he debuts at first base for Branch Rickey's Brooklyn Dodgers
May: The House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) convenes in Hollywood to hunt for Communists in the film industry
June: Pan Am Airways is chartered as the 1st worldwide passenger airline
June: Secretary of State George C. Marshall proposes aid extension to European nations for war recovery, known as the Marshall Plan, which would lead to Congressional approval of $12 billion over the following four years
July: Larry Doby signs a contract with the Cleveland Indians, becoming the first black player in the American League
July: In New Mexico the Roswell Daily Record reported the military’s capture of a flying saucer
July: President Truman signs the National Security Act, creating the Department of Defense, the National Security Council, CIA, FBI, and the Joint Chiefs of Staff
August: San Francisco’s first parking meter is installed at Bush and Polk streets
September: WPVI TV channel 6 in Philadelphia, PA., (ABC) begins broadcasting
September:  Stephen King, author, was born in Portland, Maine
October: In the first televised White House address, President Truman asked Americans to refrain from eating meat on Tuesdays and poultry on Thursdays to help stockpile grain for starving people in Europe
October: The House Un-American Activities Committee re-convenes in Washington and opens public hearings on alleged communist infiltration within the motion picture industry in Hollywood
November: San Francisco voters overwhelmingly approve Measure 10, the Save the Cable Cars Measure
December: The Tennessee Williams play "A Streetcar Named Desire" opens on Broadway
December: Truman grants a pardon to 1,523 who had evaded the World War II draft


1948

President: Harry Truman (Democrat)
Vice President: none


January: The Supreme Court rules that states could not discriminate against law-school applicants because of race
January: The 1st tape recorder sells
February: The United States and Italy sign a pact of friendship, commerce and navigation
March:  "Gentleman’s Agreement" wins the Academy Award for best picture of 1947
April: The 1st US figure skating championships are held
April: The Soviet Union begins its land blockade of the Allied sectors of Berlin, Germany. A counter blockade by the west was put into effect, as well as a British and U.S. airlift of supplies and food
April: The Organization of American States is founded by twenty-one nations to provide a mutual security pact after World War II
June: The news that the sound barrier has been broken is finally released to the public by the U.S. Air Force
June: The first successfully produced microgroove 33 1/3 rpm, long-playing, records are unveiled by Dr. Peter Goldmark of Columbia Records
July: The fare on New York City subways doubles from a nickel to ten cents
July: Executive Order 9981, ending segregation in the United States military, is signed into effect by President Harry S. Truman
August: Babe Ruth dies at age 53 in NYC
September: Margaret Chase Smith became the first woman elected to the Senate without completing another senator’s term
October: In New York the 1st Grand Prix at Watkins Glen is held
November: President Harry S. Truman rallies from behind, capturing his first president election from the supposed winner Thomas E. Dewey, the governor of New York
December: The House Un-American Activities Committee announces that former Communist spy Whittaker Chambers had produced microfilm of secret documents hidden inside a pumpkin on his Maryland farm

1949

President: Harry Truman (Democrat)
Vice President: Alben Barkley

January: Axis Sally, who broadcasted Nazi propaganda to U.S. troops in Europe, stands trial in the United States for war crimes
January: The first TV daytime soap opera, "These Are My Children," wis broadcast from the NBC station in Chicago
March: Captain James Gallagher lands the B-50 Lucky Lady II in Texas after completing the first around-the-world non-stop airplane flight
March: 1st automatic street light is in New Milford, CT
April:  NATO, the North American Treaty Organization, is formed by the United States, Canada, and ten Western European nations (Belgium, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, United Kingdom)
April: Look Magazine proclaims that radio is "doomed" and that within 3 years television will completely overshadow it
May: The 1st Polaroid camera sells for $89.95 in NYC
June: A gas turbine, electric locomotive is demonstrated in Erie, PA
June: "Hopalong Cassidy" becomes the 1st network western on NBC
June: United States withdraws its troops from Korea after WWII
August: The US Congress approves the celebration of Flag Day
August: The Basketball Association of America and the National Basketball League merge to form the National Basketball Association
September: The Ladies Professional Golf Association of America is formed in NYC
September: "The Lone Ranger" premieres on ABC television
October: Harvard Law School begins admitting women
October:  Eleven leaders of the United States Communist party are convicted of advocating a violent insurrection and overthrow of the U.S. government

1950

President: Harry Truman (Democrat)
Vice President: Alben Barkley


January: The Brinks robbery in Boston occurs when eleven masked bandits steal $2.8 million from an armored car outside their express office
January: President Truman announces that he has ordered full-speed development of the hydrogen bomb
February: Albert Einstein warns against the hydrogen bomb on US national TV
March: Silly Putty is introduced to the public
March: The FBI begins its "10 Most Wanted" list after a reporter asks for the names and descriptions of the "toughest guys" the FBI would like to capture
April: Chuck Cooper becomes the 1st black to play in the NBA
May: Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel opens in NYC
June: Surgeon Richard Lawler performs the first kidney transplant operation in Chicago
June: The Korean War starts
June: Thirty-five military advisers are sent to South Vietnam to give military and economic aid to the anti-Communist government
June: President Harry Truman orders U.S. troops into Korea and authorizes the draft
July: President Harry Truman nams US Gen. Douglas MacArthur as commander-in-chief of United Nations forces assisting the South Koreans
July: United States military involvement in Vietnam begins as President Harry Truman authorizes $15 million in military aid to the French
August: President Harry S. Truman calls the National Guard to active duty to fight in the Korean War
September:  Congress adopts the Internal Security Act, which provides for registration of communists
October: The comic strip "Peanuts," created by Charles M. Schulz (28), is syndicated to seven newspapers as "Li'l Folks"
October: The Federal Communications Commission authorizes the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) to begin commercial color TV broadcasts
October: Hank Ketcham begins his cartoon strip "Dennis the Menace"
November: US Pres. Truman proclaims an emergency crisis caused by communist threat
December: President Truman bans U.S. exports to Communist China


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and if I'm flying solo, at least I'm flying free
to those who ground me, take a message back from me
tell them how I am defying gravity

* Anneka Ivanova

    (28/04/2017 at 12:28)
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1951

President: Harry Truman (Democrat)
Vice President: Alben Barkley


January: Supreme Court rules that the "clear and present danger" of incitement to riot is not protected speech and can be a cause for arrest
January: President Truman creates the Commission on Internal Security and Individual Rights, to monitor the anti-Communist campaign
February: NYC passes a bill prohibiting racism in city-assisted housing
February: FBI director J. Edgar Hoover initiates a secret nationwide program intended to remove politically suspect employees from their jobs
February: The 22nd Amendment to the Constitution, limiting a president to two terms of office, is ratified
March: Julius and Ethel Rosenberg are found guilty of conspiracy of wartime espionage and sentenced to death. They are executed June 19, 1953. Morton Sobell is also convicted of the crime and sentenced to thirty years in prison.
May: Racial segregation in Washington D.C. restaurants is ruled illegal
June: UNIVAC, the first computer built for commercial purposes, is demonstrated in Philadelphia by Dr. John W. Mauchly and J. Prosper Eckert, Jr.
June: The first commercial color telecast takes place as CBS transmitted a one-hour special from New York to four other cities
July: Alice in Wonderland, an American animated film produced by Walt Disney, is released in New York City and London by RKO Radio Pictures
August: The former enemies of the world war reconvene in San Francisco to finalize negotiations on the peace treaty to formally end WW II
September: The United States, Australia, and New Zealand sign a mutual security pact, the ANZUS Treaty
September: The inauguration of trans-continental television occurs with the broadcast of President Truman's speech at the Japanese Peace Treaty Conference in San Francisco
December: Richard Buckminster Fuller files patent for the Geodesic Dome
December: "Shoeless" Joe Jackson, of baseball's "Black Sox" scandal, dies

1952

President: Harry Truman (Democrat)
Vice President: Alben Barkley


January: "Dragnet" with Jack Webb premieres on NBC TV
February: New York adopts the three-colored traffic lights
February: Dick Button performs 1st figure skating triple jump in competition
February: The first pedestrian "Walk/Don't Walk" signs are installed at 44th Street and Broadway at Times Square
April: President Truman authorizes the seizure of United States steel mills in order to avert a strike, but his action is ruled illegal by the U.S. Supreme Court on June 2
April: The MGM movie musical "Singin' in the Rain," starring Gene Kelly, is first released
April: An atomic test conducted at Yucca Flat, Nevada, becomes the first nuclear explosion shown on live network television
May: Mr. Potato Head is introduced
May: In San Francisco the first Golden Gate Park Road Race was held with some 60 cars vying for first place
July: Robin Williams, comedian and actor, is born in Chicago
July: Puerto Rico becomes a self-governing commonwealth of the United States
November: At Eniwetok Atoll in the Pacific Ocean, the first hydrogen bomb, named Mike, is exploded
November: General Dwight D. Eisenhower, a newcomer to politics, but popular due to his role in winning World War II as European commander, gains an easy victory over Democratic challenger Adlai E. Stevenson
November: False fingernails are 1st sold
November: President-elect Dwight D. Eisenhower travels to Korea to try and end the conflict


1953

President: Dwight D. Eisenhower (Republican)
Vice President: Richard Nixon


January: GM introduces the first American sports car, the two-seater Corvette at the annual NYC Motorama Show at the Waldorf-Astoria
January: Dwight D. Eisenhower is inaugurated as president
February: US Court of Appeals rules that Organized Baseball is a sport & not a business, affirming the 25-year-old Supreme Court ruling
March:  F.M. Adams becomes the 1st US commissioned woman army doctor
March: The Academy Awards ceremony is televised for the first time
April: The first 3-D horror movie "House of Wax," produced by Warner Bros. and starring Vincent Price, premieres in New York City
May: An F5 tornado hits downtown Waco, Texas, killing 114 people with 597 injured
June: John F. Kennedy and Jacqueline Bouvier announce their engagement
July: Fighting ceases in the Korean War. North Korea, South Korea, the United States, and the Republic of China sign an armistice agreement
August: The United States CIA assists in the overthrow of the government in Iran, and retains the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi to the throne
September: Senator John Fitzgerald Kennedy (36) of Massachusetts marries Jacqueline Lee Bouvier (24)
October: America's first ever non-stop transcontinental service begin with flights by American Airlines using DC-7 aircraft
October: The Cold War continues in earnest when President Dwight D. Eisenhower approves a top secret document stating that the U.S. nuclear arsenal must be expanded to combat the communist threat around the world
March:  "Gentleman’s Agreement" wins the Academy Award for best picture of 1947
December: Eisenhower holds the 1st White House Press Conference before 161 reporters
December: The first color televisions go on sale
December: Swanson and Sons introduces the TV Dinner


1954

President: Dwight D. Eisenhower (Republican)
Vice President: Richard Nixon


January: Elvis Presley records a 10 minute demo in Nashville
January: Oprah Winfrey, actress and TV host, is born in Mississippi
February: The first large scale vaccination of children against polio begins in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
March: Puerto Rican nationalists open fire from the gallery of the U.S. House of Representatives, wounding five congressmen
March: The 1st shopping mall opens in Southfield, Mich
March: RCA manufacturs its first color TV set and began mass production
April: Joseph McCarthy begins televised Senate hearings into alleged Communist influence in the United States Army
April: U.S. Air Force Academy is founded in Colorado
May: Racial segregation in public schools is declared unconstitutional by the United States Supreme Court in Brown vs. the Board of Education
June: The 1st microbiology laboratory is dedicated in New Brunswick, NJ
June:  Americans take part in the first nation-wide civil defense test against atomic attack
July: Elvis Presley’s first commercial recording session takes place at Sun Records in Memphis
September: Integration of public schools begins in Washington DC and Maryland
September:  In Bangkok, Thailand, the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization is formed by the U.S., Great Britain, Australia, New Zealand, France, the Philippines, Pakistan, and Thailand, creating a mutual defense pact
October: Marilyn Monroe divorces Joe DiMaggio
October: Chevrolet introduces the V-8 engine
November: Ellis Island closes after processing more than 20 million immigrants since opening in New York Harbor in 1892
December: U.S. Congress votes to condemn Senator McCarthy for his conduct during the Army investigation hearings

1955

President: Dwight D. Eisenhower (Republican)
Vice President: Richard Nixon


January: A presidential news conference is filmed for television for the first time, with permission from President Eisenhower
January: "Scrabble" debuts in the board game market
February: The United States government agrees to train South Vietnamese troops
March: The SF Chronicle reports that a Univ. of California survey found that Americans spend more money on comic books that all the country’s elementary schools and high schools spend on textbooks
March: 1st radio facsimile transmission (fax) is sent across the continent
March: The U.S. Air Force unveils a self-guided missile
April: Ray Kroc acquires the McDonald’s chain of fast food restaurants
April: Albert Einstein, physicist, dies in Princeton New Jersey
May: The Supreme Court of the United States orders that all public schools be integrated with deliberate speed
June: Eisenhower becomes the 1st president to appear on color TV
June: The U.S. House of Representatives votes to extend Selective Service until 1959
July: Disneyland, the brainchild of Walt Disney, whose fatherhad worked at previous world's fairs and inspired his son to build the iconic Magic Castle and other exhibits opens in Anaheim, California
September: The Brooklyn Dodgers win the National League pennant
October: A United Airlines plane bound for SF crashes in Wyoming killing 66 people
October: Tappan sells its 1st home microwave oven for $1,295
November: An Alabama woman is bruised by a meteor
December: Rosa Parks, an African American seamstress, refuses to give up her seat on the bus to a white man, prompting a boycott that would lead to the declaration that bus segregation laws were unconstitutional by a federal court
December: The two largest American labor unions, the American Federation of Labor and the Congress of Industrial Organizations, merge to form the AFL-CIO, boasting membership of fifteen million


For more information, check out this and thiswebsite.
and if I'm flying solo, at least I'm flying free
to those who ground me, take a message back from me
tell them how I am defying gravity

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